Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic
Nakhchivan is one of the oldest cultural centers of the Near East. People settled here 500-300 thousand years ago. Five thousand years ago, the formation of Nakhchivan urban culture is considered to be the most important indicator of civilization development in this ancient land of Azerbaijan.
Nakhchivan also made a significant contribution to the history of statehood of Azerbaijan. Azerbaijani Turks lived here for thousands of years and laid the foundations of great statehood traditions. In the X century “Nakhchivan kingdom”, the Azerbaijan Atabeylar state in XII century, “Nakhchivan khanate” in the XVIII-XIX centuries, the Araz-Turk Republic in the beginning of the XX century.
Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, established in 1924, is an integral part of Azerbaijan. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan (1995), which the author is national leader Heydar Aliyev, Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is an autonomous state within the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Nakhchivan’s autonomous history was reflected in two important international documents signed in 1921 - in the Moscow and Kars treaties. Article 3 of the Moscow Treaty and Article 5 of the Kars Treaty stipulates the bases of autonomy, as well as the territory of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.
The territory of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is 5,500 square kilometers, with a population of 450,000 (1 June 2017). Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is composed of capital city Nakhchivan and 7 administrative regions. There are 5 towns, 8 settlements and 206 villages.
Border of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is 14 km with the Republic of Turkey, 204 km to the Islamic Republic of Iran and 246 km to Armenia.
Supreme legislative power of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic is Supreme Majlis of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic composed of 45 deputies. Supreme Majlis’s term of office is 5 years. According to the Constitution of the Republic of Azerbaijan and the Constitution of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, the Chairman of the Supreme Majlis of the autonomous republic is the highest official of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic. The executive power is exercised by the Cabinet of Ministers, and the judiciary is administered by the courts of the autonomous republic.
Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic has 3 higher education institutions: Nakhchivan State University, “Nakhchivan” University and Nakhchivan Teachers’ Institute, Nakhchivan Branch of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, 3 secondary special schools, Military Lyceum named after Heydar Aliyev, 5 vocational schools and 216 secondary schools.
The national leader Heydar Aliyev said: “Nakhchivan is a sacred land reflecting the ancient history of the Azerbaijani people. Nakhchivan is a landmark of monuments reflecting the history of the Azerbaijani people”.
Nakhchivan is rich in the ancient and medieval Turkish-Islamic culture samples and historical monuments - ancient settlements, cities, magnificent castles, tombstones which are the most beautiful examples of memorial architecture and unique natural monuments.
According to the Decree of the Chairman of the Supreme Majlis of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic dated December 6, 2005, “On organization of the protection and passport registration of historical and cultural monuments in the territory of Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic”, more than 1200 historical monuments of world, country, local importance have been certificated in the autonomous republic.
Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic preserving centuries-old achievements of Islamic culture, respects national and moral values, preserves religious values and traditions, monuments are restored. Taking into account all this, Nakhchivan city was declared the capital of Islamic culture in 2018 at the sixth conference of ministers of culture of member states of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation in October 2009 in Baku.